Allan Krill, Professor of Geology


The sciences of Stone Age Archaeology and Paleoanthropology (human origins) are unlike other sciences. They exist mainly to inspire and entertain us. Their funding depends on public interest and enthusiasmÑpeople want to know about human history, and they enjoy unsolved mysteries and exciting new discoveries. Major mistakes or falsifications are not fatal in these sciences. No plane will crash or bridge will collapse because of an exaggeration, an error, or a hoax. In fact, a successful hoax can be essential in keeping a project going. I am realizing that Stone Age Archaeology and Paleoanthropology allow major hoaxes to go uncorrected. Remarkable finds, whether real or fictional, are easy to 'sell' and bring more funding. But fake finds eliminate legitimate hypotheses.




Laetoli human footprints in a false 4 My lava                   False fresh artifacts from a recent excavation


Hoax and fake are 'four-letter words' in any science. Scientists might suspect a hoax, but won't investigate it. If a scientist were to publicly suggest that a colleague falsified data, it could quickly end his own career. Scientific organizations, university departments, and scientific journals discourage investigation of possible hoaxes, because any such discussion will harm their reputations. Their highest priority is to maintain and promote their academic reputations. Any mention of hoaxes conflicts with that goal.


Hoaxes ('hoaxyz') happen in paleoanthropology and Stone Age archaeology quite often. It is only natural. An excavation or dig can bring millions of dollars in funding, which pays for the dig, and helps support labs and administrations, and the salaries of many researchers. A dig with nothing found is a disaster, because no follow-up study or publications are warranted. With a hoax, a dig's success and follow-up are certain, and another well funded dig is more likely.


The simplest hoax is when someone helps the excavation team by planting artifacts that others will find. Such discoveries can seem miraculous to the team, but everyone is willing to accept a miracle. We might say it in biblical terms: Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap. If the hoax involves planted bones, I now call it a Piltdown-type hoax. If worked stones are planted, I call it a Finnmarkian-type hoax. Stones are the easiest to falsify, because they cannot be radiocarbon dated.


Stone Age archaeology in Finnmark, northern Norway is probably all 'fictional' Ñ initiated by Anders Nummedal. Starting in 1925 he claimed to have found knapped stone artifacts on ancient shoreline terraces in Finnmark. The artifacts were supposedly lying loose on the ground, and were so obvious that they "jump out at you". Archaeologists eventually realized that there are no knapped stones to be found on the surface in Finnmark. Nummedal must have knapped the stones himself.


Nummedal published photographs of his artifacts, and anyone can now see that they are faked. Stones lying on the ground would have lichen covering themÑNummedal's artifacts don't. Light-colored artifacts found under the ground would have iron-rust stains on knapped surfacesÑNummedal's don't. Although Nummedal's artifacts are obviously hoaxes, that possibility is never discussed, because his claims benefit archaeology. More homemade artifacts are continually being reported from digs that are well funded when road projects and construction projects require a dig. The artifacts are not claimed to lie on the surface. They are supposedly found out of sight, just below the surface. No human burials or bones, or worked pieces of antler, bone, or wood have been found. Such items could be radiocarbon dated and the DNA analyzed.


My heterodox hypothesis is that there were no people living along the coasts of northern Norway in the Stone Age. I now call this Stone Age archaeology 'fictional'. Experts need samples to demonstrate their expertise, and it doesn't matter if the samples are genuine or fake. The goal is to produce impressive professional publications that demonstrate knowledge, efforts, and talents, and advance academic careers. Experts don't blow the whistle on their colleagues, because that would ruin their own careers.


Here are blog posts documenting my research using this heterodox working hypothesis.


25. The early stone-age Fosna- and Komsa-cultures: unrecognized hoaxes  (11.2022)

26. Grahame Clark (1975): The Earlier Stone Age Settlement of Scandinavia (11. 2022)

27. Newly discovered petroglyphs at 26m show that shoreline-dating gives us falsely old ages

28. 'Le Finnmarkien': an archaeologic hoax for the ages (11. 2022)

41. An open secret: Anders Nummedal used falsifications to become an archaeologist (11.2022)

182. Sometimes scientists don't want to know (8.2023)

183. Four things that new NTNU archaeology students should be told (8.2023)

184. A recent hoax: Supposed Stone Age discovery at Vinje¿ra, mid-Norway (8.2023)

186. Archaeologists thought that NummedalÕs Ôshoreline datesÕ were much too old, but yielded ...

187. Nummedal aggressively kept others from joining him in the field (9.2023)

188. Flint was brought from Danish beaches to Norwegian beaches as ballast in longships (9.2023)

1. Dubious Digs Ñ questioning finds of fossil finds and artifacts (10.2023)

2. English translation of Anders Nummedal's 1926 lecture 'Stenaldersfundene i Alta' (1.2024)

4. Nummedal must have knapped these 70 artifacts himself in Alta in 1925 (1.2024)

5. Stone Age implements that Nummedal supposedly found in 1926 at RepvŒg in Finnmark (1.2024)

9. Nummedal's two 1926 dwelling sites at Russedalen Kolvik (Finnmark) (1.2024)

10. Nummedal's 1926 Storbukta site (Kolvik, Porsanger, Finnmark) (1.2024)

11. Nummedal's 1926 Steinneset site (Lakselv, Finnmark) (1.2024)

13. Nummedal's 1926 B¿rselvneset site (B¿rselv, Finnmark) (1.2024)

14. Nummedal's 1927 BerlevŒg site (Finnmark) (1.2024)

16. Nummedal's 1927 Vads¿ site (Finnmark) (1.2024)

17. How leading archaeologists deal with Nummedal's obvious hoaxes (1.2024)

18. The 'Finnmarkian' claims by B¿e & Nummedal (1936) should now be studied and debunked

19. Nummedal's six sites at Grense Jakobselv (1.2024)

20. STONE AGE FINDS IN FINNMARK Anders Nummedal (1929) PDF (1.2024)

22. Nummedal's eight sites at Kirkenes (1.2024)

23. Le Finnmarkien (1936). English translation of the Foreword by Johannes B¿e and introduction

24. List of Nummedal's 61 sites of falsified discoveries in Finnmark (1.2024)

25. B¿e & Nummedal (1936). Translation of "How far back was the Finnmarkian?" (1.2024)

26. Le Finnmarkien (1936) Translation of the chapter "The Finnmarkian in Universal Prehistory"

27. Stone Age Finds in Finnmark: searchable text of Nummedal's 1929 article. (1.2024)

28. Le Finnmarkien by B¿e & Nummedal (1936). Translation of figure texts (104 plates, 495 figures)

29. Le Finnmarkien (1936). Translation of the chapter: "General character of the Finnmarkian"

30. Using faked artifacts, B¿e & Nummedal (1936) established ÔFictional ArchaeologyÕ in Norway

31. Johannes B¿e's reference list in 1936 (trs impressionnant, en franais)  (2.2024)

32. Nummedal's 12 sites along Varangerfjord (here translated to English)  (2.2024)

33. Nummedal's 5 sites at Vard¿ (translated from French)  (2.2024)

34. Nummedal's sites at Syltefjord, BŒtsfjord, and Kongsfjord on Varanger Peninsula  (2.2024)

35. Nummedal's 5 sites at BerlevŒg (translated from French)  (2.2024)

38. Nummedal's sites at Gamvik, Nordkyn peninsula (translated from French)  (2.2024)

39. Nummedal's site near Lebesby, Laksefjorden (translated from French)  (2.2024)

40. Nummedal's 2 sites on Mager¿ya (translated from French)  (2.2024)

41. Nummedal's 2 sites along Lafjorden (translated from French)  (2.2024)

42. Nummedal's 7 sites along Porsanger (translated from French)  (2.2024)

43. Nummedal's 6 sites around Alta (translated from French)  (2.2024)

44. THE FINNMARKIAN English translation of Le Finnmarkien by B¿e & Nummedal (1936) (2.2024)

45. Nummedal's knapped stones originated as local cobbles from most of his 61 sites  (3.2024)

47. Why didn't archaeologist Gutorm Gjessing blow the whistle on Nummedal's falsifications?

48. Modern archaeologic reports in Finnmark have not mentioned Le Finnmarkien (1936)  (3.2024)

49. These ten local school kids are enjoying a totally 'fictional' archaeological dig at Gamnes

50. Le Finnmarkien (1936) has not been available online at the National Library of Norway  (3.2024)

51. Gjessing (1936) fully endorsed Nummedal's discoveries of early Stone Age finds in Finnmark

52. Nummedal's stones: many of them "speak for themselves."    (4.2024)

53. Hammerstones: easy to make, but are they really possible to find?   (4.2024)

54. Melsvik chert near Alta in Finnmark: a 2012-2013 quarry using Stone Age techniques    (4.2024)

55. At Gamnes, Finnmark: 19,902 natural fragments of quartz, and 38 special fragments (probably brought there and dropped)

57. Nummedal: "Tools of Antler and Bone from Finnmark" (in the journal Viking, 1938) (5.2024)

58. The Melk¿ya Project: the greatest archaeology hoax since NummedalÕs 'Finnmarkian' (5.2024)

59. Archaeologists obtain ÔStone AgeÕ radiocarbon dates from shells and charcoal bits that occur on shorelines (6.2024)




Everyone would like to know where in Africa humans came from, and why they lost their fur and evolved to be so different than apes. But paleoanthropologists are fossil experts, not evolutionists. If our questions about human evolution get answered, their fossil-expertise would be passŽ, and their careers would suffer. For over 60 years they have avoided discussing the 'Aquatic Ape Hypothesis'. They ridicule it.


'Fictional' paleoanthropology was initiated by Eugne Dubois. He went to Java in 1887 intent on discovering bones of the missing link. In 1891 he supposedly found them (Java Man / Homo erectus.) This was a Piltdown-type hoax. He never let experts study his bones of Homo erectus, and the bones have still never been chemically tested or DNA-tested. It should be obvious that his fossils are falsifications, but that topic is not openly discussed.


In the current story of human evolution, humans evolved in eastern Africa, where it is dry and fossil bones can be found. I think humans actually evolved in wet western Africa where living chimpanzees exist (see Paleohuman.com). But there is no fossil bone of a chimp or any other mammal in all of western Africa. It's too wet. Fossil-experts need fossils, so they ignore western Africa. And they allow eastern African hoaxes.


The accepted story of human evolution in eastern Africa is based on four major fossil hoaxes: Lucy skeleton, Laetoli footprints, the Turkana-Boy Homo Erectus skeleton, and Little Foot skeleton. Read my manuscript: The story of human evolution is based on fictional fossil evidence (submitted to many journals, but blocked by editors.)


A short list of hoaxers in paleoanthropology.


Lucy bones are now known to include a baboon vertebra. I think the bones were planted by PhD student Tom Gray to make Professor Don JohansonÕs expedition a success.

Laetoli footprints are not millions of years old as claimed. They were incorrectly dated and then covered up by Mary Leakey to help hide the incorrect interpretation.

The Turkana Homo Erectus is a 100-year-old human skeleton that was planted and 'discovered' by Kamoya Kimeu, then chemically altered by Richard Leakey and Alan Walker.

Little Foot 'skeleton' was assembled by Ronald Clarke, from parts of 3 different monkey skeletons, and human foot bones from a university medical school collection..

'Handaxes' in England are mostly genuine. But million-year-old handaxes in Africa were probably planted there to make the archaeological sites more convincing and famous.


Some of my messages from the 'Aquatic Ape Theory' discussion group: https://groups.io/g/AAT

66718.  3.6 million year old bipedalism at Laetoli is a geological hoax (4.2020)

66954.  Should we really believe in fossil material that is not allowed to be fluorine tested?73127.  Three taboo topics in scientific journals: aquatic-ape-hypothesis, humanzee, hoax

Some messages from the 'Anthropogeny' discussion group: https://groups.io/g/anthropogeny

3. Did student Tom Gray plant the Lucy fossils, and then trick professor Donald Johanson into discovering them? (4.2020)

7. Johanson's 1981 version of the 1974 Lucy fossil discovery (5.2020)

9. Paleoanthropology promotes untestable evidence and unfounded beliefs (7.2020)

56. The earliest human footprints (Laetoli) occur in lake sediments that have been misinterpreted as datable volcanic ash (11.2020)

76. The story of human evolution is based on fictional fossil evidence (12.2020)

103. The earliest human footprints (Laetoli) occur in lake sediments that have been misinterpreted as datable volcanic ash (1.2021)

105. Allan Krill's talk on Laetoli footprints at the 34th Geological Winter Meeting in Norway, 2021 (1.2021)

110. New ideas on the possible use and misuse of the Stone Age handaxe (2.2021)

224. Piltdownian science experts won't mention the possibility of hoax (2.2022)

235. Professional wrestling and paleoanthropology are unlike other sports and sciences

236. Examples of kayfabe in paleoanthropology (5.2022)

237. Paleoanthropologists pull their punches to get published (5.2022)

273 & 275. Some F-words in paleoanthropology (7.2022)

280. How can an entire science be based on falsehoods and misinterpretations? (7.2022)